Linux Archives - COBRA softwares
02 Nov

Linux news Brief

Embedded Linux News Briefs


Lineo unveiled a challenge to Microsoft’s Windows CE: Embedix PDA. The product will add a Win CE compatibility layer to Linux, allowing developers to port Win CE applications to Linux easily. Lineo’s targets are palm computers and embedded systems. (

Transmeta disclosed plans for “Mobile Linux”, which will support the highly constrained resources of portable Internet devices and embedded systems. The company plans to offer its Linux enhancements to the Open Source community. ( announced the results of its third Embedded Linux poll, which asked developers to describe an embedded computing application in which they are planning to use Linux. The Poll’s results can be viewed at

A new whitepaper from MontaVista Software reviews the benefits of Linux to embedded applications, discusses the alternatives available and offers a glimpse of what to expect from embedded Linux in the coming year. (

Corel Corporation entered into an agreement to acquire up to 30% of start-up OE/, a company founded by a former Corel executive that has developed a sub-$500 Linux-based Internet appliance. (

Issue 73
 Lineo, Inc. announced it has begun shipping Embedix Linux 1.0, the company’s embedded Linux distribution. Embedix is targeted to x86 and PowerPC-based embedded devices. It requires a minimum of 8MB RAM, 3MB of ROM/Flash memory and is based on the Linux 2.2 kernel. (f ROM/Flash memory and is based on the Linux 2.2 kernel. (

Evidencing significant inroads made by Linux within the US government, the National Security Agency (NSA) awarded a contract to Secure Computing Corporation to develop a robust, highly secure configuration of Linux. (

Lineo, Inc. announced a major embedded Linux design win in the set-top box market. The system, to be marketed by Bast, Inc., will go in hotel rooms and apartment buildings. The initial plan is for 50,000 systems priced at $285 US each. (

Touch Dynamics announced an open-source project to develop KOSIX, an industry-standard public kiosk terminal operating system based on Linux. KOSIX will offer an open-source alternative to conventional, proprietary kiosk OSes. (

An interview with Michael Tiemann, Red Hat’s Chief Technology Officer, discusses the impact of Red Hat’s acquisition of Cygnus on the embedded Linux market and the future of the Cygnus EL/IX Embedded Linux API initiative. (

IBM disbanded its Internet division and redirected its resources toward an aggressive campaign to promote Linux. As part of this strategy shift, former Internet division executive Irving Wladawsky-Berger was transferred to the new IBM Linux group. IBM says it will collaborate with the Linux Open Source community and has dedicated a portion of its web site to Linux-related information. (

DataViews Corporation, a provider of “human-machine interfaces” (HMIs) for factory automation operator interfaces, announced a Linux version of its high-end HMI software tool, DataViews. The company claims to be the first provider of Linux-based HMI tools. (

UC Berkeley announced two short courses on real-world applications programming, to be offered this spring in Los Angeles, San Francisco and Boston. The courses will emphasize Linux and are titled “Real-Time Programming for Embedded Systems” and “32-Bit Real-Time Operating Systems with an Emphasis on Linux”. (

There’s a movement afoot to develop Linux-based “programmable logic controller” (PLC) technology. PLCs are commonly used in manufacturing and factory automation control systems. A Linux-PLC web site, mailing list and open-source software are being created. (

FSMLabs released beta version 3.0 of RTLinux for “hard real-time” applications. RTLinux can control machinery while maintaining full Linux compatibility. The new release, based on the latest Linux 2.3 kernel, offers improved performance and supports ports to non-x86 architectures. (

Linux received a boost in laboratory and industrial test, measurement and control with the announcement by National Instruments of comprehensive Linux support. The company has assembled Linux-based instrumentation and control solutions for VME and VXI-based hardware. (

Intel began delivering prototypes of Itanium, its new 64-bit CPU (formerly code-named Merced). Sources within Intel said the company will shortly authorize the Trillian group (a team working on Linux for Itanium) to release the Itanium Linux source code to the Linux developer community.

MontaVista Software Inc. released its Hard Hat Net CompactPCI backplane networking package to the GPL Open Source community. The move provides developers with powerful networking options for using Linux and CompactPCI in telecom, telephony, Internet and other embedded applications. (

VA Linux Systems introduced SourceForge, a major open-source initiative that provides over 700 open-source development projects with extensive hosting and communication resources. The services are available at no cost to open-source developers. (


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20 Jul

Tutorial: Installing a LAMP Web Server on Amazon Linux

The following procedures help you install the Apache web server with PHP and MySQL support on your Amazon Linux instance (sometimes called a LAMP web server or LAMP stack). You can use this server to host a static website or deploy a dynamic PHP application that reads and writes information to a database.


This tutorial assumes that you have already launched an instance with a public DNS name that is reachable from the Internet. For more information, see Step 1: Launch an Instance. You must also have configured your security group to allow SSH (port 22),HTTP (port 80), and HTTPS (port 443) connections. For more information about these prerequisites, see Setting Up with Amazon EC2.


If you are trying to set up a LAMP web server on an Ubuntu instance, this tutorial will not work for you. These procedures are intended for use with Amazon Linux. For more information about other distributions, see their specific documentation. For information about LAMP web servers on Ubuntu, see the Ubuntu community documentation ApacheMySQLPHPtopic.

To install and start the LAMP web server on Amazon Linux

  1. Connect to your instance.
  2. To ensure that all of your software packages are up to date, perform a quick software update on your instance. This process may take a few minutes, but it is important to make sure you have the latest security updates and bug fixes.


    The -y option installs the updates without asking for confirmation. If you would like to examine the updates before installing, you can omit this option.

    [ec2-user ~]$ sudo yum update -y
  3. Now that your instance is current, you can install the Apache web server, MySQL, and PHP software packages. Use the yum install command to install multiple software packages and all related dependencies at the same time.
    [ec2-user ~]$ sudo yum install -y httpd24 php56 mysql55-server php56-mysqlnd
  4. Start the Apache web server.
    [ec2-user ~]$ sudo service httpd start
    Starting httpd:                                            [  OK  ]
  5. Use the chkconfig command to configure the Apache web server to start at each system boot.
    [ec2-user ~]$ sudo chkconfig httpd on


    The chkconfig command does not provide any confirmation message when you successfully enable a service. You can verify thathttpd is on by running the following command.

    [ec2-user ~]$ chkconfig --list httpd
    httpd           0:off   1:off   2:on    3:on    4:on    5:on    6:off

    Here, httpd is on in runlevels 2, 3, 4, and 5 (which is what you want to see).

  6. Test your web server. In a web browser, enter the public DNS address (or the public IP address) of your instance; you should see the Apache test page. You can get the public DNS for your instance using the Amazon EC2 console (check the Public DNS column; if this column is hidden, choose Show/Hide and selectPublic DNS).


    If you are unable to see the Apache test page, check that the security group you are using contains a rule to allow HTTP (port 80) traffic. For information about adding an HTTP rule to your security group, see Adding Rules to a Security Group.


    If you are not using Amazon Linux, you may also need to configure the firewall on your instance to allow these connections. For more information about how to configure the firewall, see the documentation for your specific distribution.


    This test page appears only when there is no content in/var/www/html. When you add content to the document root, your content appears at the public DNS address of your instance instead of this test page.

Apache httpd serves files that are kept in a directory called the Apache document root. The Amazon Linux Apache document root is /var/www/html, which is owned by root by default.

[ec2-user ~]$ ls -l /var/www
total 16
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Jul 12 01:00 cgi-bin
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 4096 Aug  7 00:02 error
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Jan  6  2012 html
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 4096 Aug  7 00:02 icons

To allow ec2-user to manipulate files in this directory, you need to modify the ownership and permissions of the directory. There are many ways to accomplish this task; in this tutorial, you add a www group to your instance, and you give that group ownership of the /var/www directory and add write permissions for the group. Any members of that group will then be able to add, delete, and modify files for the web server.

To set file permissions

  1. Add the www group to your instance.
    [ec2-user ~]$ sudo groupadd www
  2. Add your user (in this case, ec2-user) to the www group.
    [ec2-user ~]$ sudo usermod -a -G www ec2-user


    You need to log out and log back in to pick up the new group. You can use the exit command, or close the terminal window.

  3. Log out and then log back in again, and verify your membership in the wwwgroup.
    1. Log out.
      [ec2-user ~]$ exit
    2. Reconnect to your instance, and then run the following command to verify your membership in the www group.
      [ec2-user ~]$ groups
      ec2-user wheel www
  4. Change the group ownership of /var/www and its contents to the www group.
    [ec2-user ~]$ sudo chown -R root:www /var/www
  5. Change the directory permissions of /var/www and its subdirectories to add group write permissions and to set the group ID on future subdirectories.
    [ec2-user ~]$ sudo chmod 2775 /var/www
    [ec2-user ~]$ find /var/www -type d -exec sudo chmod 2775 {} \;
  6. Recursively change the file permissions of /var/www and its subdirectories to add group write permissions.
    [ec2-user ~]$ find /var/www -type f -exec sudo chmod 0664 {} \;

Now ec2-user (and any future members of the www group) can add, delete, and edit files in the Apache document root. Now you are ready to add content, such as a static website or a PHP application.

(Optional) Secure your web server

A web server running the HTTP protocol provides no transport security for the data that it sends or receives. When you connect to an HTTP server using a web browser, the URLs that you enter, the content of web pages that you receive, and the contents (including passwords) of any HTML forms that you submit are all visible to eavesdroppers anywhere along the network pathway. The best practice for securing your web server is to install support for HTTPS (HTTP Secure), which protects your data with SSL/TLS encryption.

For information about enabling HTTPS on your server, see Tutorial: Configure Apache Web Server on Amazon Linux to use SSL/TLS.

To test your LAMP web server

If your server is installed and running, and your file permissions are set correctly, yourec2-user account should be able to create a simple PHP file in the /var/www/htmldirectory that will be available from the Internet.

  1. Create a simple PHP file in the Apache document root.
    [ec2-user ~]$ echo "<?php phpinfo(); ?>" > /var/www/html/phpinfo.php


    If you get a “Permission denied” error when trying to run this command, try logging out and logging back in again to pick up the proper group permissions that you configured in To set file permissions.

  2. In a web browser, enter the URL of the file you just created. This URL is the public DNS address of your instance followed by a forward slash and the file name. For example:

    You should see the PHP information page:


    If you do not see this page, verify that the/var/www/html/phpinfo.php file was created properly in the previous step. You can also verify that all of the required packages were installed with the following command (the package versions in the second column do not need to match this example output):

    [ec2-user ~]$ sudo yum list installed httpd24 php56 mysql55-server php56-mysqlnd
    Loaded plugins: priorities, update-motd, upgrade-helper
    959 packages excluded due to repository priority protections
    Installed Packages
    httpd24.x86_64                          2.4.16-1.62.amzn1                    @amzn-main
    mysql55-server.x86_64                   5.5.45-1.9.amzn1                     @amzn-main
    php56.x86_64                            5.6.13-1.118.amzn1                   @amzn-main
    php56-mysqlnd.x86_64                    5.6.13-1.118.amzn1                   @amzn-main

    If any of the required packages are not listed in your output, install them with the sudo yum install package command.

  3. Delete the phpinfo.php file. Although this can be useful information to you, it should not be broadcast to the Internet for security reasons.
    [ec2-user ~]$ rm /var/www/html/phpinfo.php

To secure the MySQL server

The default installation of the MySQL server has several features that are great for testing and development, but they should be disabled or removed for production servers. The mysql_secure_installation command walks you through the process of setting a root password and removing the insecure features from your installation. Even if you are not planning on using the MySQL server, performing this procedure is a good idea.

  1. Start the MySQL server.
    [ec2-user ~]$ sudo service mysqld start
    Initializing MySQL database:  Installing MySQL system tables...
    Filling help tables...
    To start mysqld at boot time you have to copy
    support-files/mysql.server to the right place for your system
    Starting mysqld:                                           [  OK  ]
  2. Run mysql_secure_installation.
    [ec2-user ~]$ sudo mysql_secure_installation
    1. When prompted, enter a password for the root account.
      1. Enter the current root password. By default, the root account does not have a password set, so press Enter.
      2. Type Y to set a password, and enter a secure password twice. For more information about creating a secure password, see Make sure to store this password in a safe place.


        Setting a root password for MySQL is only the most basic measure for securing your database. When you build or install a database-driven application, you typically create a database service user for that application and avoid using the root account for anything but database administration.

    2. Type Y to remove the anonymous user accounts.
    3. Type Y to disable remote root login.
    4. Type Y to remove the test database.
    5. Type Y to reload the privilege tables and save your changes.
  3. (Optional) Stop the MySQL server if you do not plan to use it right away. You can restart the server when you need it again.
    [ec2-user ~]$ sudo service mysqld stop
    Stopping mysqld:                                           [  OK  ]
  4. (Optional) If you want the MySQL server to start at every boot, enter the following command.
    [ec2-user ~]$ sudo chkconfig mysqld on

You should now have a fully functional LAMP web server. If you add content to the Apache document root at /var/www/html, you should be able to view that content at the public DNS address for your instance.

(Optional) Install phpMyAdmin

phpMyAdmin is a web-based database management tool that you can use to view and edit the MySQL databases on your EC2 instance. Follow the steps below to install and configure phpMyAdmin on your Amazon Linux instance.


We do not recommend using phpMyAdmin to access a LAMP server unless you have enabled SSL/TLS in Apache; otherwise, your database administrator password and other data will be transmitted insecurely across the Internet. For information about configuring a secure web server on an EC2 instance, see Tutorial: Configure Apache Web Server on Amazon Linux to use SSL/TLS.

  1. Enable the Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux (EPEL) repository from the Fedora project on your instance.
    [ec2-user ~]$ sudo yum-config-manager --enable epel
  2. Install the phpMyAdmin package.
    [ec2-user ~]$ sudo yum install -y phpMyAdmin


    Answer y to import the GPG key for the EPEL repository when prompted.

  3. Configure your phpMyAdmin installation to allow access from your local machine. By default, phpMyAdmin only allows access from the server that it is running on, which is not very useful because Amazon Linux does not include a web browser.
    1. Find your local IP address by visiting a service such as
    2. Edit the /etc/httpd/conf.d/phpMyAdmin.conf file and replace the server IP address ( with your local IP address with the following command, replacing your_ip_address with the local IP address that you identified in the previous step.
      [ec2-user ~]$ sudo sed -i -e 's/' /etc/httpd/conf.d/phpMyAdmin.conf
  4. Restart the Apache web server to pick up the new configuration.
    [ec2-user ~]$ sudo service httpd restart
    Stopping httpd:                                            [  OK  ]
    Starting httpd:                                            [  OK  ]
  5. In a web browser, enter the URL of your phpMyAdmin installation. This URL is the public DNS address of your instance followed by a forward slash andphpmyadmin. For example:

    You should see the phpMyAdmin login page:


    If you get a 403 Forbidden error, verify that you have set the correct IP address in the /etc/httpd/conf.d/phpMyAdmin.conffile. You can see what IP address the Apache server is actually getting your requests from by viewing the Apache access log with the following command:

    [ec2-user ~]$ sudo tail -n 1 /var/log/httpd/access_log | awk '{ print $1 }'

    Repeat Step 3.b, replacing the incorrect address that you previously entered with the address returned here; for example:

    [ec2-user ~]$ sudo sed -i -e 's/previous_ip_address/' /etc/httpd/conf.d/phpMyAdmin.conf

    After you’ve replaced the IP address, restart the httpd service withStep 4.

  6. Log into your phpMyAdmin installation with the root user name and the MySQL root password you created earlier. For more information about usingphpMyAdmin, see the phpMyAdmin User Guide.
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16 Jul

Install sublime in ubuntu

This is a very simple tutorial will show you how to install your favorite sublime text 3 editor in ubuntu.

It is a very powerful editor to write codes, there is a lots of open source plugins available for this editor which makes coding easy.
Sublime Text is a sophisticated text editor for code, markup and prose.
You’ll love the slick user interface, extraordinary features and amazing performance.

Follow below steps to installing Sublime Text 3 editor in Ubuntu 14.04

Steps-1: Open your terminal by pressing Ctrl+Alt+T

how to install sublime in ubuntu

Step-2: Add repository
sudo add-apt-repository -y ppa:webupd8team/sublime-text-3

Step-3: Update repository

sudo apt-get update
Note: Update process will take some time. Be patience.

Step-4: After added the repository, run command to install the script:

sudo apt-get install -y sublime-text-installer
It will download and install the sublime text editor in your Ubuntu

Screenshot from 2016-07-16 19-41-02



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29 May

Hacker group demonstrates Steam games running on PS4 via Arch Linux


Linux and Sony used to be on good terms, if not the best of friends. Back in the early days of the PS3, Sony actively talked up its support for “Other OS,” and encouraged programmers to think about Cell as a potential competitor in HPC environments and as part of supercomputer clusters. Once hackers found ways to use Other OS in ways Sony didn’t anticipate, however, the company patched the functionality out of the PS3 altogether. When the PS4 launched, there was no noise about any sort of Other OS compatibility — the system would play games, pure and simple.

Except that’s not exactly how things have turned out. The PS4 shares many commonalities with PCs, but according to hacking group fail0verflow, it’s not a PC — there are legacy features missing in the PS4 and “the southbridge does a lot of things in nonstandard ways and the way it is organized makes no sense” (that last is a quote from marcan, a fail0verflow member).

According to a YouTube video from April, modder OsirisX managed to get Arch Linux running on a PS4, and then managed to install the Steam client. The video below shows the entire boot up process and ends with a gameplay segment from the game Bastion. According to comments OsirisX has made elsewhere, “Most games have stable FPS when running low to mid graphics setting.”

Note that this required a PS4 that was already jailbroken (only possible if you are still running firmware 1.76 or below) and some specific patches, available here. Even so, current compatibility is unknown, as is the overall performance level. Until someone builds a Steam OS box with a roughly comparable AMD GPU, we won’t know how well the PS4 is actually performing relative to an equivalent PC.

The pros and cons of compatibility

In theory, bringing Linux support to the PS4 could open up the console to a small (albeit vocal and dedicated) group of gamers who view Linux as a preferred OS and want to play more games in that operating system. In practice, Sony will never allow it, for three reasons.

First, while the PS4 has much in common with a PC, it’s not identical to your typical beige box. The CPU cluster is a pair of quad-core Jaguars and the GPU is a tweaked version of AMD’s GCN architecture with its own set of custom capabilities. PS4 games have been optimized and designed to run on the PS4; the games available via Steam for Linux haven’t. In some indie games, this isn’t likely to matter, but more demanding titles could easily bog down. Sony isn’t going to take on the task of ensuring that Steam games run well on the PS4 when using an operating system it doesn’t formally support, and Valve won’t target the PS4 as a platform for its own SteamOS unless Sony signs off first.

Second, there’s the piracy concerns. Sony yanked OtherOS support from the PS3 as soon as it got a whiff that there might be a chance the capability could be used for piracy. It’s not going to risk any emerging threat that could compromise the PS4 as a locked-down ecosystem.

Third, there’s the simple fact that Sony doesn’t need to make any dramatic product changes to increase PS4 sales. It’s already dominating this console generation with more units shipped than the Xbox One and Wii U combined. The Nintendo NX and rumors of a new Xbox One are an opportunity for Nintendo and Microsoft to shrink the gap, but the PS4 Neo is expected to give Sony’s hardware a boost as well. Nintendo may break free of its doldrums thanks to stronger hardware, but it’s not at all certain that Microsoft will be able to steal Sony’s thunder nearly three years into the current console generation.

It’s cool to see these kinds of hacks as an illustration of what enterprising and talented individuals can do — but we strongly suspect that Linux gamers will be better served by a PC designed for such titles than a PS4 that isn’t.


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07 Sep

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